Geoscience, a collective term for all earth and natural sciences such as geology, geophysics, geochemistry or geodesy that is concern with the study of the earth be it superficial or profound. Being one of the most important fields in our highly technological world, geoscientists study the earth, the atmosphere and its oceans to characterize it materials, comprehend the processes that shapes it reconstruct its history.
The study of geoscience which requires a set of thinking and investigative skills are not commonly found in other areas of the sciences in general. It has been known for her key roles it plays both in academia and the industry. It involves a wide range of methodologies required for predicting the past (As Geologist would say, “THE PRESENT IS THE KEY TO THE PAST”) for large scale thinking and for integrating large and incomplete data sets (No wonder geoscientists are being paid enormously to think effectively). Geoscience requires high-level spatial ability thinking (three dimensional thinking).
In geoscience the development of time perspectives is crucial, particularly those of geological time. Geoscience fieldwork has particular strategies and methodologies that must be acquired (which range from particular observational and recording skills to the high-level analysis and synthesis skills necessary for understanding the multi-faceted field context).
It is both the tradition and responsibility of geoscience to help humanity. Seismologists and volcanologists attempt to save lives by evacuating before eruptions or mitigating the effects of earthquakes. Exploration geologists are responsible for identifying and assessing the location, quantity and quality of mineral or hydrocarbon deposits. Their work can be office based, although fieldwork is necessary to collect and test site/borehole samples. Geophysicists are scientists who utilize physics, chemistry, geology and advanced mathematics to study the Earth and its composition, including the atmosphere, internal make-up and electrical and other fields. Some geophysicist may specialize their study in areas like Earth’s magnetic and gravitational fields, planetary movement and seismic activity
Geodesists quantify the shape of the Earth so that cities can be built and airplanes flown. Space physicists provide a window into the nearly unknown world in which our satellites are sent and spacecraft launched. Hydrologists, oceanographers and atmospheric scientists may have the heaviest burden of all as they help guide the planet through the current climate crisis. Geoscience also has the responsibility to not confine itself to addressing current problems. As a science, we must develop a framework to address future issues. In order to push knowledge forward, we must invest intellectually and financially in basic science at a level commensurate with the applied fields. Such an investment is intrinsically risky. Many scientific leads turn out to be dead-ends. Other pathways may continue indefinitely, but are difficult to connect to the rest of the field. A field driven by pure thirst for knowledge runs the danger of becoming a tangled spider web of seemingly unrelated facts and personal theories. Basic science needs to be guided by a long-range vision of the future of the field. Then geoscientists can advance knowledge in a focused way and real progress can be made.
In recent years, numerical methods and computer simulations provide a new way to deal with many geological, geophysical and geo-environmental problems, for which the traditionally-used theoretical and experimental methods may not be valid due to the large time and length scales of the problems themselves. This enables many hitherto unsolvable geoscience problems to be solved using numerical methods and computer simulations. In particular, through wide applications of computational mechanics to geoscience problems, a brand new branch, namely computational geosciences, has been established. However, due to the extremely large length and time scales, the numerical simulation of a real geological world also provides many challenging problems for the researchers involved in the field of computational mechanics.